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A book is printed. housands of people possess its ies, and th words and pictures in h r exactly th same. But there was time when every book had t b written b hand and every picture drawn and painted separately. If u think for moment, u will realize what tremendous difference th invention of printing has caused t th world!
Printing was invented b German named Johann Gutenberg, who printed the Bible in 1456. Printing was known about thousand years ago in China, but before Gutenberg it was nl done b cutting ut ll th letters f page n n block of wood. Quick printing began when Gutenberg came to an idea t cut letters n small blocks of metal which could b used again and again, fitted into frame. This is called mvbl t.
h craft of printing spread quickly. he first English printer was William tn, who set u his printing press in Westminster in 1476. ton was the first to print books in his wn language. fore him ll printed books had bn in Latin. ton translated foreign books into English and he als printed th books f English uthors, including th great poet Chaucer, and so helped to form the literary English language. In fifteen years ton printed mor than hundred different books.


he Library was created in 1800 b an t of Congress that propriated $ 5,000 "for the purchase of such books as m b nessary for the us of Congress and for fitting up suitable rtment for containing them... " Destroyed when the British burned th Capitol during th War of 1812, the collections were replaced b the purchase of homas Jefferson's library in 1815. h Library rmained in th Capitol until th completion of th present ain Building in 1897.
In 1939, th Ann Building was completed to hus the Library's growing collections and brought the Library's total floor space t 35 rs. third major building, the Library of Congress James Madison Memorial Building, located across Independence Avenue from the ain Building, was completed in 1977.
Th primary role of the Library of Congress is t perform rsearch work for members and committees of Congress. Over the years, Congress hs traditionally shared with the public th collections of the Library, which now functions as the national library of the United States. An person over high school age m us the facilities of its 16 reading-rooms, and its resources r available to other Government agencies and t libraries throughout the United States, through such services as interlibrary lan and the distribution f printed catalogue cards.
Although the Library of Congress does nt acquire vr book printed, r even vr book published in the United States, it is nonetheless probably th world's largest library. It possesses of th first great book printed from movable metal type - the Gutenberg Bible - in addition t millins of thr items. It also houses such rarities as collection of Stradivarius instruments, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, hmas Jefferson's draft of th Declaration f Independence, and the Giant Bible of ainz.


Research directed toward the solution of problems can b divided into two major classes: evaluative and developmental. An evaluative problem is n in which the alternative courses of tin are completely specified in advance and the solution consists of selecting the best of these. developmental problem is nrnd with the search for (and perhaps construction or syntheses f) instruments which yield course of tin that is better than n vilabl at the time.
In discussing the hases of research we should consider each of the types of research that have bn identified and explore their methodological differences and similarities. But the basis of these comparisons will b laid throughout b detailed consideration of evaluative problem solving.
As it will b sn in some detail, applied research has the advantage of being bl to formulate criteria of its own efficiency in terms of the objectives for which the problem is being investigated. us of the lack of specific objectives, in ur research such criteria nnt b formulated as explicitly. Cnsequently, in ur research mn implicit assumptions are made about the conditions under which its results will b applied. In applied research these assumptions r frequently found to b unrealistic. elaborate previous example, in ur research the seriousness of various errors n seldom b measured. In applied problems, however, thr r few cases in which this condition holds. n different estimation procedures r required in applied science, and serious questions about the estimating procedures of ur science r raised. This fact is nt generally appreciated; n the contrary, it is mmnl believed that pure research tends to b methodologically superior to applied research.

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